Nepal Traveler Essentials

Nepal is the Federal Democratic Republic and a landlocked country having an area of 1,47,181 sq. km (56827 sq. m). It has a population of about 29.6 million. The highest point of Nepal is at 8848m (Mt. Everest) whereas the lowest point is at 59m above the sea level. The latitude and longitude lie at 26° 12' and 30° 27' North and 80° 4' and 88° 12' East respectively. Kathmandu, the capital city includes 4 World Heritage Sites (Swoyambhunath, Pashupatinath, Boudhanath and Kathmandu Durbar Square). There are more than 102 ethnic groups speaking 90 different languages. The country is also renown for the world’s highest mountain Mt. Everest (8,848m), every adventure lover dreams of. There are at least 160 major peaks over 7000 m and 1340 peaks over 6000 m while Kanchenjunga 8598 m, 8516 m Lhotse, Makalu 8463 m, 8201 m Cho Oyu, Dhaulagiri 8167 m, Manaslu 8163 m, and Annapurna 8091 m, are some of the major peaks names of the Himalayas. Nepal shares its border with China in the North and India in the South, East, and West. Koshi 350 km stretch Nepalese (total 720 km), Karnali, Narayani, Mechi, Mahakali are the major rivers. The physical geography of this country is divided into 3 regions:
The Himalayas region covers 15% of total area of the country constituting 16 districts. The surfaces are dry, rocky and infertile comprising from the altitude of 3300 m to the highest point 8848 m Mt. Everest from the sea level. This region has a cold climate.
The Terai Plain covers an area of 17% of the total area of the country comprising of 20 districts. Being at a lower altitude the climate is hot receiving a lower amount of rainfalls. Alluvial soil, the fertile soil is found in this region which is the reason for high agricultural yields and also known as the “granary of Nepal”.
The Mid Hills cover 68% of total area of country constituting of 39 districts. This region receives enough rainfall which is the reason to have many rivers and streams in comparison to another region. The region runs from east-east between the Himalayan region in the north and the Terai Region in the south. The altitude ranges from 600 m to 3300m having a moderate climate.
Spring (Mar-May), Summer (June –Aug), Autumn (Sep-Nov) and Winter (Dec-Feb) are the season experienced here. Meanwhile, the best season to experience and see the beauty of this country is Spring (Mar-May) and Autumn (Sep-Nov).

+5:45 ahead of GMT

Mammals:            185 species
Birds:                    850 species
Flora:                    2532 species of vascular plant

World heritage sites10 world heritage sites declared by UNESCO in Nepal
World heritage sites (Cultural)
Kathmandu Durbar square
Patan Durbar square
Bhaktapur Durbar Square
Swoyambhunath Stupa
Bouddhanath Stupa
Changunarayan Temple
Pashupatinath Temple
Lumbini Garden

World heritage sites (Natural)
Everest National Park (1148sq. km)
Chitwan National Park (932 sq. km)

Home to Endangered Species
Royal Bengal tiger, One-horned rhino, Snow - leopard, Red panda, Brown bear, Assamese macaque, Genetic dolphin, wolf, wild elephant , giant hornbill, swamp deer, wild yak, Tibetan antelope, Blackbuck, four horned antelope, Musk deer, Pigmy hog, Hasped hare, Pangolin, Gharial, Indian bustard, Saras crane, Impend pheasant, Python, etc..
A Living Cultural Heritage     Shamanisms, Pan-animism, and Witchcraft are still practiced in remote regions Temples, shrines, monuments, and monasteries, Living Goddess "Kumari".

1. World’s most popular trekking trails such as Annapurna Circuit trekking and Everest Base Camp Trek.
2. Best arenas for Extreme & Adventure Sports tourism such as mountaineering, canyoning, paragliding, mountain biking, kayaking, rafting, bungee jumping, high altitude marathon etc.
3. Karnali in Simikot as one of the best rivers in the world for kayaking and most of the upstream Nepalese rivers offer the best rapids for white-water rafting

National Parks:           11
Wildlife Reserves:        Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve – 175 (68 sq.m)
Conservation areas:   6
Hunting Reserve:       Dhorpatan Hunting Reserve – 1,325 (512 sq.m)

1. The geological age of the Himalaya is approximately 70 million years. It is the youngest Mountain Range in the world.
2. According to Hindu mythology, God Shiva resides in the Himalaya.
3. Nameha Barwa peak is the easternmost and Nanga Parbat is the westernmost peak of the Himalaya.
4. Kumbhakarna is the new name of mount Jannu (7,710 m).
5. Gosainthan (8014m) -the Nepali name for Shisha Pangma.
6. The ideal height gain per day for mountaineers is 1,000 ft above 10,000 ft.
7. Source for rivers such as the Indus, the Yangtze, and the Ganga-Brahmaputra. All three are the river systems of the continent of Asia.
8. The third largest deposit of ice and snow in the world, after Antarctica and the Arctic having approximately 15,000 glaciers located throughout the range.
9. The Himalayas are alive geographically! The Indo-Australian plate is still moving at 67 mm per year, and over the next 10 million years it will travel about 1,500 km into Asia

1. Nudity and open display of love is not considered acceptable
2. Some Hindu Temple does not allow Non-Hindus Inside
3. Taking photographs inside the temple is extremely prohibited
However, the external observation is fine.
Social consideration 
The adults work with the culture and social mores of the individuals and groups of individuals with whom they work. They work not only with the individuals but also with the society from which each person emerges and to which they return.
It increased the likelihood that they have to consider and manage the impact of culture and society in the planning and execution. Such consideration include the determination of how the adult will deal with mores and meanings taken for granted in regard to certain groups of people and certain belief structures.

Communication Services: 
Nepal Post is considered as one of the oldest governmental service organizations in the country, which started postal services formally through the post offices for the first time in 1878 AD when it was established. It was called Nepal Hulak Ghar (General Post Office) while it was established. It was started from Kathmandu for dealing with letters from the public. After three years of its establishment, Nepal Hulak Ghar had expanded to 43 post offices in different parts of the country. Customers had to pay the postal charges in cash during those days.
Telephone, fax, telex and telegraph services are available at the Nepal Telecommunications Corporation at Tripureshwor. Hotels and private communications centers provide a long-distance telephone. For calling from outside, the country code for Nepal is + 977 and the area code for Kathmandu is 1.
There are several internet cafes and communication centers in the Kathmandu Valley and around the country. Tourists only need to find a place they are most comfortable with to use the facilities to keep in touch with home. E-mail and Internet services are also offered by hotels.
Nepali media has developed quickly within just a few years of time. Also the government Media, Radio Nepal, and Nepal Television, there are many FM and television networks, many FM radio stations, and upcoming regional television stations are controlling the market. Main Nepali daily newspapers are Gorkhapatra and Kantipur, Nagarik, while the English dailies are The Rising Nepal, The Kathmandu Post, Republican, The Himalaya Times.
Kathmandu, Bhaktapur, Lalitpur, Pokhara, Chitwan, Dharan etc, are the major cities where you can find Big Mahal, Shopping center, Big Mart and Departmental store.  Handicraft made of stone and metal, silver and gold trinkets, and delicate wood carvings are the popular artifacts you can take home as a Souvenir from Nepal. In Nepal you can you can buy both imported and local goods easily. But in small shops or individual stores, you can negotiate the rate for buying the belongings.  Newroad, Thamel, Ason, are the major center for shopping.    
Drinking water
Water is one of the most basic elements for all living beings on this earth. Nepal is rich in water resources. Bottled minerals water is easily available in every hotel, guest house, and lodges. When traveling in a bucolic area you must carry Iodine tablets with you because iodine tablets will offer you defense from viruses, bacteria, and parasites. Iodine can easily found in local shops.
In general, the total consumption of total electricity in Nepal appears to 220 Volts/50 cycles.
The total capacity of the Integrated Nepal Power System (INPS) which Nepal Electricity Authority (NEA) operates stands at 757 Megawatts, with the demand for electricity ever increasing; NEA has not been able to cope with demand. Conversely, Nepal hotels cover UPS (Uninterruptible Power Supply) to reduce the electric crisis.
A lightweight cloth is recommended for April to the end of October, warm garments are required. You can wear simple like pants, T-shirt, light trousers. In the months of November to end of March, there will be cold and you are advised to carry light jackets. Winter season starts from December to February this is core winter you have to wear thick clothes like Sweater, thick jacket, and trousers. Most of the Northern belt of the trans- Himalayan zone is rain shadowed and ideal for trekking especially such as Upper Mustang, Dolpo, Manaslu, Around Annapurna etc. 

By Land: Nepal can be entered from both India and Tibet.
From India 
The easiest way to get into Nepal from India is from Gorakhpur by train and the Sunauli/Belahiya border post or another option might be from Raxaul/Birgunj border post, which might not be the pleasant travel for you. If you are intending to travel from Darjeeling, you can get into Nepal via Kakarbhitta.
From Tibet
The easiest way to get into Nepal is by crossing the border at Kodari by bus taking 7 to 12 hour depending to the conditions of the road.
By Air: Nepal has only one International Airport at Kathmandu operating flights to different countries.

 Entry Procedures

A visa for Nepal can be obtained on arrival at the Tribhuvan International Airport, Kathmandu and at border entry points in Kakadvitta, Birgunj, Bhairahawa, Nepalgunj, Gaddachowki on the Nepal-India border and Kodari on the Nepal-China border.
Outside of Nepal
A visa can also be obtained at the nearest Nepal Embassy or Diplomatic Mission.
To renew a Visa you can go to the Department of Immigration, Kalikasthan, Kathmandu.

A valid passport and one passport -size photo with a light background.
Visa can be obtained only through payment of cash in the following currency: Euro, Swiss Franc, Pound Sterling, US Dollar, Australian Dollar, Canadian Dollar, Hong Kong Dollar, Singapore Dollar, and Japanese Yen.
Credit card, Indian currency, and Nepali currency are not accepted as payment of visa fee
A. Tourist Visa Nepal
Visa Facility      Duration    Fee
Multiple entry    15 days    US$ 25 or equivalent convertible currency
Multiple entry    30 days    US$ 40 or equivalent convertible currency
Multiple entry    90 days    US$ 100 or equivalent convertible currency
B. Gratis (Free) Visa
For the first visit in one visa year (January to December), gratis visa for 30 days is available only for nationals of South Asian countries like Bangladesh, Bhutan, Maldives, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka. However, visa can be extended from the Immigration Department on payment of visa fee as specified above.
Indian nationals do not require visa to enter into Nepal.
C. Nepal Visa for Indian Nationals
Indian nationals do not require a visa to enter Nepal. As per the Nepalese Immigration, Indian Nationals traveling to Nepal by air must possess any one of the following documents.
1. Passport
2. Election Commission Card
D. Nepal Visa for Chinese Nationals
As per official circular of the Embassy of Nepal in Beijing, China, Chinese nationals applying for a tourist visa to Nepal are being provided “gratis tourist visa” from Jan. 5, 2016, from following Nepali missions in the People’s Republic of China:
Embassy of Nepal, Beijing
Consulate General of Nepal, Lhasa
Consulate General of Nepal, Hong Kong
Honorary Consulate of Nepal, Shanghai
E. Other Visa Information
Nationals from Nigeria, Ghana, Zimbabwe, Switzerland, Cameroon, Somalia, Liberia, Ethiopia, Iraq, Palestine, and Afghanistan will need to obtain a visa from Nepal Embassies or Diplomatic Missions in their respective countries, as they do not get a visa on arrival at the immigration entry points of Nepal.
F. Visa Extension for Nepal
Tourists can stay for a maximum of 150 days in a visa year (Jan 1 to Dec 31).

The vaccinations are compulsory but it’s better to get updated with your health condition and vaccinate as prescribed by the travel specialist. But here are some recommended vaccinations: Hepatitis A, Typhoid, and Meningitis. Boosters are also recommended for Tetanus, Polio, Mumps, and Measles. You may also require Japanese Encephalitis, Hepatitis B, and Rabies especially important for young children or visiting rural areas and the Terai.
Many people wear dust mask due to the pollution in Kathmandu valley in order to get rid of respiratory, sinus, chest, ear, nose and throat infections. 

The Nepali currency is recognized as Nepalese Rupee that comes in 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, 50, 100, 500, 1000 notes in the form of papers while coins are made of copper that comes in 1 and 2 only (1 Nepalese rupee = 100 Paisa). Money exchange is done through banks or authorized money exchangers. Visitors other than the Indian nationals have to make the payment in foreign currency (non-Indian currency) in a hotel, trekking agencies or travel agencies and for air tickets.